California Department of Fish and Wildlife

Marine Protected Areas in NOAA's Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

Volume I

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Volume I consists of the Draft Environmental Document (ED) as originally prepared along with changes in response to some of the comments received during the review period. Additions to the Draft ED are indicated in bold face and underline, deletions are indicated in strikethrough. In cases where large portions of text were deleted or moved, a notation has been inserted to indicate this. In addition, several tables have been added to facilitate comparison of alternatives and understanding of the text. The table numbers for these tables and their descriptions in the list of tables are indicated in bold face and underline as well.

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Volume I Cover

Complete Table of Contents

  • Table of Contents (page i)
  • List of Tables (p. vii)
  • List of Figures (p. xiii)
  • Defined Terms (p. xvi)
  • Conversion Table (p. xix)

Executive Summary


Chapter 1. Purpose and Need for Proposed Action

  • 1.1 Introduction (p. 1-1)
  • 1.2 Location and General Characteristics of the Project Area (p. 1-1)
  • 1.3 Project Objectives (p. 1-3)
  • 1.4 Marine Protected Areas (p. 1-5)
  • 1.5 Conclusion (p. 1-17)

Chapter 2. The Environmental Document

  • 2.1 Proposed Project (p. 2-1)
  • 2.2 California Environmental Quality Act (p. 2-1)
  • 2.3 Functional Equivalent (p. 2-4)
  • 2.4 Scope and Intended Use of Environmental Document (p. 2-4)
  • 2.5 Authorities and Responsibilities (p. 2-5)
    • 2.5.1 Jurisdictions of Coastal and Ocean Waters (p. 2-5)
    • 2.5.2 Resource Based Agencies and Commissions (p. 2-7)
  • 2.6 Public Input (p. 2-11)
    • 2.6.1 Marine Reserves Working Group Process (p. 2-11)
    • 2.6.2 Outcome of the Marine Reserves Working Group Process (p. 2-14)
    • 2.6.3 CEQA Process (p. 2-15)
  • 2.7 Areas of Concern (p. 2-16)
  • 2.8 Issues to be Resolved (p. 2-18)

Chapter 3. Project Description

  • 3.1 Proposed Project (p. 3-1)
  • 3.2 Alternatives (p. 3-11)
    • 3.2.1 Alternative 1 (p. 3-11)
    • 3.2.2 Alternative 2 (p. 3-12)
    • 3.2.3 Alternative 3 (p. 3-15)
    • 3.2.4 Alternative 4 (p. 3-16)
    • 3.2.5 Alternative 5 (p. 3-17)
    • 3.2.6 Alternative 6 Defer Decision (p. 3-18)
    • 3.2.7 Alternative 7 No-Action (p. 3-18)

Chapter 4. Environmental Settings

  • 4.1 Project Setting (p. 4-1)
  • 4.2 Physical Environment (p. 4-2)
    • 4.2.1 Climate and Meteorology (p. 4-2)
    • 4.2.2 Air Quality (p. 4-3)
    • 4.2.3 Water Quality (p. 4-4)
      • 4.2.3.1 Importance of Habitat Loss, Degradation, and Modification (p. 4-10)
    • 4.2.4 Geology (p. 4-12)
    • 4.2.5 Oceanography (p. 4-15)
      • 4.2.5.1 Importance of El Nio Events (p. 4-19)
      • 4.2.5.2 Marine Ecosystem Disturbance (p. 4-22)
  • 4.3 Biological Environment (p. 4-24)
    • 4.3.1 Biogeographic Regions (p. 4-24)
    • 4.3.2 Habitat Types (p. 4-24)
      • 4.3.2.1 Intertidal Habitat (p. 4-25)
      • 4.3.2.2 Subtidal Habitat (p. 4-26)
      • 4.3.2.3 Kelp Forest Habitat (p. 4-29)
      • 4.3.2.4 Surfgrass and Eelgrass Habitat (p. 4-31)
      • 4.3.2.5 Water Column Habitats (p. 4-34)
      • 4.3.2.6 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) (p. 4-35)
    • 4.3.3 Biological Resources and Species of Interest (p. 4-36)
      • 4.3.3.1 Plankton (p. 4-36)
      • 4.3.3.2 Macroalgae and Vascular Plants (p. 4-40)
      • 4.3.3.3 Invertebrates (p. 4-42)
      • 4.3.3.4 Fishes (p. 4-54)
      • 4.3.3.5 Seabirds and Shorebirds (p. 4-103)
      • 4.3.3.6 Sea Turtles (p. 4-117)
      • 4.3.3.7 Marine Mammals (p. 4-117)
      • 4.3.3.8 Threatened, Endangered and Special Status Species (p. 4-132)
  • 4.4 Human Environment (p. 4-134)
    • 4.4.1 Commercial Fishing (p. 4-139)
      • 4.4.1.1 Aquaculture (p. 4-139)
      • 4.4.1.2 Commercial Fisheries Harvest (p. 4-139)
    • 4.4.3 Recreation and Tourism (p. 4-161)
      • 4.4.3.1 Consumptive Activities (p. 4-161)
      • 4.4.3.2 Non-Consumptive Activities (p. 4-162)
    • 4.4.4 Oil and Gas (p. 4-173)
    • 4.4.5 Vessel Traffic and Harbors (p. 4-174)
      • 4.4.5.1 Commercial Vessel Traffic (p. 4-174)
      • 4.4.5.2 Ports and Harbors (p. 4-174)
    • 4.4.6 Noise (p. 4-175)
    • 4.4.7 Cultural, Historic, and Archaeological Resources (p. 4-176)

Chapter 5. Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Project

  • 5.1 Introduction (p. 5-1)
  • 5.2 Physical Environment (p. 5-4)
    • 5.2.1 Air Quality (p. 5-4)
    • 5.2.2 Water Quality (p. 5-4)
    • 5.2.3 Geology (p. 5-5)
    • 5.2.4 Oceanography (p. 5-5)
  • 5.3 Biological Environment (p. 5-6)
    • 5.3.1 Threshold of Significance for Biological Impacts (p. 5-6)
      • 5.3.1.1 Biological Criteria for Comparisons of MPA Benefits (p. 5-6)
    • 5.3.2 Biological Impacts (p. 5-20)
      • 5.3.2.1 Impacts of the Proposed Project (p. 5-20)
      • 5.3.2.2 Cumulative Impacts of the Proposed Project and Federal Waters Phase (p. 5-36)
  • 5.4 Human Environment (p. 5-38)
    • 5.4.1 Socioeconomic methods and Criteria (p. 5-39)
    • 5.4.2 Impacts to Commercial Fishing (p. 5-48)
    • 5.4.3 Recreational Fishing (p. 5-54)
    • 5.4.4 Non-Consumptive Uses (p. 5-57)
    • 5.4.5 Oil and Gas Resources (p. 5-60)
    • 5.4.6 Vessel Traffic (p. 5-60)
    • 5.4.7 Noise (p. 5-60)
    • 5.4.8 Cultural, Historic, and Archaeological Resources (p. 5-61)
  • 5.5 Measures Proposed to Mitigate Environmental Effects (p. 5-61)
  • 5.6 Relationship Between Short-Term Human Uses of the Natural Environment and the Maintenance of Long-Term Productivity (p. 5-62)
  • 5.7 Irreversible or Irretrievable Commitments of Resources (p. 5-62)

Chapter 6. Environmental Impacts of Alternatives

  • 6.1 Alternative 1 (p. 6-1)
    • 6.1.1 Natural Environment (p. 6-1)
    • 6.1.2 Human Environment (p. 6-5)
  • 6.2 Alternative 2 (p. 6-13)
    • 6.2.1 Natural Environment (p. 6-13)
    • 6.2.2 Human Environment (p. 6-17)
  • 6.3 Alternative 3 (p. 6-26)
    • 6.3.1 Natural Environment (p. 6-26)
    • 6.3.2 Human Environment (p. 6-30)
  • 6.4 Alternative 4 (p. 6-38)
    • 6.4.1 Natural Environment (p. 6-38)
    • 6.4.2 Human Environment (p. 6-42)
  • 6.5 Alternative 5 (p. 6-51)
    • 6.5.1 Natural Environment (p. 6-51)
    • 6.5.2 Human Environment (p. 6-55)
  • 6.6 Defer Decision (p. 6-64)
  • 6.7 No Action (p. 6-65)
  • 6.8 Comparison of Alternatives (p. 6-66)
    • 6.8.1 Environmental Impacts (p. 6-66)
    • 6.8.2 Economic Impacts (p. 6-70)

Chapter 7. Consultation

Literature Cited

Glossary

Appendix 1. Fish and Game Code, Public Resources Code, and Title 14

Appendix 2. Proposed Regulatory Changes Sections 27.82(a), 630(b)(5), 630(b)(101), 630(b)(102), Title 14, CCR

Appendix 3. History of the Channel Islands Marine Reserves Working Group Process

Appendix 4. Species of Interest

Appendix 5. Descriptions of Proposed and Alternative MPA Networks

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Volume II

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Volume II contains the comments received on the Draft Environmental Document during the public review period and CDFW's responses to those comments. The comments and responses comprise Chapter 8 of the Final Environmental Document. Volume II also contains Appendices 6 and 7 which were added as additional information that became available after the production of the Draft Environmental Document.


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Volume II Cover

Chapter 8. Responses to Comments Regarding the Proposed Project

  • 8.1 List of Comments Received (p. 8-2)
  • 8.2 Department Response to Comments (p. 8-15)
  • 8.3 Copy of Comments Received (p. 8-75)

Appendix 6. Marine Protected Areas and Potential Benefits to Selected Species: A Response to the California Fish and Game Commission

Appendix 7. Response to Report on Marine Reserve Proposals for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Exhibit E.1.c., Supplemental SSC Report, September 2001
Appendix 7 is not available in electronic format.